### Rise of the Quaternions

Adolphus finally quit messing around and started using a quaternion representation for rotations internally! The quaternion class itself is simple, and conversion to and from rotation matrix and axis-angle representations is fairly straightforward. The magic happens in converting from Euler angles — all twelve valid conventions!

By solving the conversion to quaternion for all twelve possibilities, I managed to squeeze out a pattern that allows me to solve them with a near-minimum of redundant code:

```1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 @staticmethod def from_euler(convention, angles): def qterm(index): bin = lambda x: [(x >> 2) % 2, (x >> 1) % 2, x % 2] return copysign(1, index) * reduce(lambda a, b: a * b, [(bit and sin or cos)(angles[i] / 2.0) \ for i, bit in enumerate(bin(abs(index)))]) # TODO: can these be generated from the convention? eulerquat = {'xyx': [0, -5, 1, 4, 2, 7, 3, -6], 'xyz': [0, -7, 1, 6, 2, -5, 3, 4], 'xzx': [0, -5, 1, 4, -3, 6, 2, 7], 'xzy': [0, 7, 1, -6, -3, 4, 2, 5], 'yxy': [0, -5, 2, 7, 1, 4, -3, 6], 'yxz': [0, 7, 2, 5, 1, -6, -3, 4], 'yzx': [0, -7, 3, 4, 1, 6, 2, -5], 'yzy': [0, -5, 3, -6, 1, 4, 2, 7], 'zxy': [0, -7, 2, -5, 3, 4, 1, 6], 'zxz': [0, -5, 2, 7, 3, -6, 1, 4], 'zyx': [0, 7, -3, 4, 2, 5, 1, -6], 'zyz': [0, -5, -3, 6, 2, 7, 1, 4]} a, b, c, d = [sum([qterm(eulerquat[convention][i + j * 2]) \ for i in range(2)]) for j in range(4)] if a > 0: return Quaternion(a, -b, -c, -d) else: return Quaternion(-a, b, c, d)```

Now, those hard-coded sequences of numbers? I am sure there is some relationship between the patterns and the conventions that would allow a more concise translation from one to the other. Note that, for a sequence [a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h], any or all of the pairs (a, b), (c, d), (e, f), and (g, h) can be swapped without changing anything (for example, the sequence for zyx could just as easily be [0, 7, 4, -3, 2, 5, -6, 1]). This has the unfortunate effect of making finding a pattern more difficult.

There are a number of tantalizing clues. The first number is always 0. The second is always -5 when two of the rotations are about the same axis, -7 when they are all different and in (rotated) xyz order, and 7 when they are all different and in zyx order. The 1 is always positive and appears in the second pair when the first axis is x, the pair when y, and the fourth when z. And so on.

I wonder if anyone else has figured out something similar? Adolphus wants a 9-line conversion function for its birthday.

Oct 18th, 2010